History and Origin of Cult Groups In Nigerian Higher Institutions - Campus Trends


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Friday, September 28, 2018

History and Origin of Cult Groups In Nigerian Higher Institutions

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What is commonly know in other Countries as a confraternity in other countries is mostly called Cult groups here in Nigeria, well they are more or less the same.
Cultism In Nigeria 

Confraternities or Cult-groups are secret-society like student groups within higher Institutions(Yeah, higher institution because that's my focus).

Get comfortable as I take you through the history and origin of Confraternities in Nigerian Higher Institutions.

History of Confraternities In Nigeria

Wole Soyinka 

In 1952, future-Nobel Prize winning author Wole Soyinka alongside Ralph Opara, Ikhehare Aig-Imokhuede, Sylvanus Egbuchie, Nathaniel Oyelola, Pius Oleghe, Olumuyiwa Wonderment formed the Pyrate Confraternity at the elite University College, Ibadan(now University of Ibadan), then part of the University of London.

According to the Pyrates, the "Magnificent Seven", as they called themselves, observed that the university was populated with wealthy students associated with the colonial powers and a few poorer students striving in manner and dress to be accepted by the more advantaged students, while social life was dictated by tribal affiliation.

Pyrates Confraternity 

Soyinka would later note that the Pyrates wanted to differentiate themselves from "stodgy establishment and its pretentious products in a new educational institution different from a culture of hypocritical and affluent middleclass, different from alienated colonial aristocrats".The organization adopted the motto "Against all conventions", the skull and crossbones as their logo, while members adopted confraternity names such as "Cap'n Blood" and "Long John Silver".

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When fellow students protested a proposal to build a railroad across the road leading to the university, fearing that easier transportation would make the university less exclusive, the Pyrates successfully ridiculed the argument as elitist. Roughly analogous to the fraternities and sororities of North America, the Pyrates Confraternity proved popular among students, even after the original members moved on. Membership was open to any promising male student, regardless of tribe or race, but selection was stringent and most applicants were denied. For almost 20 years, the Pyrates were the only confraternity on Nigerian campuses.

What happened next, they splitted. 
I guess the question on your mind is how right, 

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read on. 

Biafra General Ojukwu Rallying His Troops For The 1960 Civil War. 

In the late 1960s, campuses were greatly affected  by the Nigerian Civil War. Details of which I couldn't get, but it appears that in 1972 Bolaji Carew and several others were expelled from the Pyrates for failing to meet expected standards. In reaction to this and other events, the Pyrates registered themselves under the name National Association of Seadogs (NAS) and, at least one source states, pulled the confraternity out of the universities. Carew went on to found the Buccaneers Confraternity (also called the National Associations of Sea Lords and it is popularly called 'the slots'), largely copying the Seadogs' structure, symbols and ceremonies.
Buccaneers Confraternity (also called the National Associations of Sea Lords)

So before you continue I want you to note that a Pyrate rejectee created the Buccaneers. 

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Let's move on,

A major impetus for the creation of new confraternities was the fact that members of the new groups simply did not meet the high academic and intellectual standards set by the Seadogs, and thus considered the original organization to be elitist (So it was only 'efiwes' that were cultist then).

However, Soyinka would later point to individuals who became accustomed to exerting power in the rigidly hierarchical confraternity, and were unwilling to give it up, as to blame for the initial schism.  As new groups formed, inter-group tensions led to fighting, though these were initially limited to fistfights.
The Supreme Eiye Confraternity (also known as the National Association of Air Lords)

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The Supreme Eiye Confraternity (also known as the National Association of Air Lords) was formed in the University of Ibadan in 1965.
In the 1980s confraternities spread throughout the over 300 institutions of higher education in the country.

The Neo-Black Movement of Africa (also called Black Axe)

The Neo-Black Movement of Africa (also called Black Axe) emerged from the University of Benin in Edo State. In 1983 students at the University of Calabar in Cross River State founded the Eternal Fraternal Order of the Legion Consortium (the Klan Konfraternity), the Supreme Vikings Confraternity (the Adventurers) the following year.

This time period saw a drastic change in the role of the confraternities. The coup of Ibrahim Babangida in 1983 caused a large degree of political tension. Military leaders, beginning in the 1980s, began to see the confraternities as a check on the student unions and university staff, who were the only organized groups opposing military rule. The confraternities were thus provided payment and weapons to use against student activists, though the weapons were often used in deadly inter-confraternity rivalries.

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During this period the confraternities introduced a new tradition of carrying out traditional religious practices, including Vodun, before any other activity. Perhaps in reaction to the changes, in 1984 Wole Soyinka declared that the Seadogs should not operate on any university campuses.

So how did Cultism grow away from Campuses?

In the early 1990s, confraternity activities expanded dramatically in the Niger Delta as confraternities engaged in a bloody struggle for supremacy. The Family Confraternity (the Campus Mafia or the Mafia), which modeled itself after the Italian Mafia emerged. Shortly after their arrival, several students were expelled from Abia State University for cheating and "cultism", a reference to the voodoo-practicing confraternities, which marked the beginning of a shift of confraternity activities from the university to off campus.

The consolidation of confraternity activities outside Nigerian University campuses was boosted by the nationwide renouncement of cultism by university students and the breakdown of traditional campus cults all over the country as a result of amnesty granted to all renounced cultists at the onset of the present democratic government. This led to migration of cultists from the campuses to residential neighbourhoods and streets as campuses were no more safe haven for them.

Incompetence of government officials and inadequate facilities to police campuses by University Authorities led to the resurgence of cultism in the campuses as renounced cultists who could not be protected by the Law, went back to their cult groups to seek protection from rival groups who had discerned their identity as a result of the renouncement ceremony. This resulted in a situation where cult groups were now well established in- and outside the campuses.

The Brotherhood of the Blood (also known as Two-Two (Black Beret)

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The Brotherhood of the Blood (also known as Two-Two (Black Beret), another notorious confraternity, was founded at Enugu State University of Science and Technology. Another cult, the Victor Charlie Boys, was established by Augustine Ahiazu when he was vice-chancellor of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology. The cults established in the early 1990s are legion; they include Second Son of Satan (SSS), Night Cadet, Sonmen, Mgba Mgba Brothers, Temple of Eden, Trojan Horse, Jurists, White Bishops, Gentlemen Clubs, Fame, Executioners, Dreaded Friend of Friends, Eagle Club, Black Scorpion, Red Sea Horse and Fraternity of Friends.

Read Also: All You Need To Know About Every Cult Group On Campus

So while I trust that you would read all my recommened articles and also share them, I strongly stand with the movement #NOTOCULTISM.

I love reading comments from my readers, so please leave your comments.

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